Thomas Lynch, Jr.

Thomas Lynch, JrThomas Lynch, Jr.

 

Thomas Lynch, Jr. was Born on August 5, 1749, in Prince George Winyah Parish, Lynch was the only son of Thomas Lynch, Sr. (1727–1776), and Elizabeth Allston. He attended the Indigo Society School in Georgetown and then traveled to England to pursue his education. There, he enrolled at Eton and then Caius College, Cambridge. Lynch also read law at the Middle Temple in London.

After his return to South Carolina in 1772, Lynch abandoned law career to become a planter at Peach Tree Plantation in St. James Santee Parish. On May 14, 1772, he married Elizabeth Shubrick, daughter of Thomas Shubrick and Sarah Motte. At his father’s advice, the younger Lynch shortly thereafter entered into the political arena. He served in the First and Second Provincial Congresses of South Carolina (1774–1776), he served on the constitutional committee of South Carolina (1776), and was in the first General Assembly (1776). In June 1775 Lynch received a commission as captain in the First South Carolina Regiment. While in North Carolina in July 1775, Lynch contracted malaria that left him in poor health which forced to leave the military.

Check out the YouTube video about Thomas Lynch, Jr.

https://youtu.be/uhlfOddZsSs

Lynch’s father had been elected to the First Continental Congress in 1774 but suffered a stroke in early 1776 that left him unable to perform his duties, it was at this time that the younger Lynch joined his father in Philadelphia and took his father’s place in Congress on April 24. Only twenty-six years old and the second-youngest member of Congress, Thomas Lynch, Jr., was the fifty-second signer of the Declaration of Independence. His father was too sick to sign, but there was a space left for his signature for when he returned. The father and son left Philadelphia in December 1776 to return to South Carolina, but the senior Lynch had a stroke and died during the trip.

Thomas Lynch, Jr. was reelected in 1779, but his diminishing health from the malaria that he had contracted while in the military prevented him from completing his full term. Lynch was advised by a doctor that it would be best to move to France, so on December 17, 1779, Lynch and his wife set sail for the south of France. On their way to the West Indies to connect to another ship which would take them to France their ship was lost at sea.

Bailey, N. Louise, and Elizabeth Ivey Cooper, eds. Biographical Directory of the South Carolina House of Representatives. Vol. 3, 1775–1790. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1981.

Horne, Paul A., Jr. “Forgotten Leaders: South Carolina’s Delegation to the Continental Congress, 1774–1789.” Ph.D. diss., University of South Carolina, 1988.

Town of Marion

Town of Marion

Town of Marion

People who were traveling from North Carolina on their way to the beaches of South Carolina, called the town of Marion “that pretty little town we go through on the way to the beach.” One reason for its attractiveness is the tree-shaded public square in the center of town. In 1798 Thomas Godbold, son of the pioneer settler John Godbold, exchanged four acres of land “for the public good” for a dollar and then sold lots surrounding the square. Initially the square was not a beauty spot but the “hitching post” where farmers tied their teams and peddlers hawked their wares. In the 1880s Mrs. C. A. Woods organized the Civic Improvement League, which converted the area into a park.

Originally named Gilesborough in honor of local war hero Colonel Hugh Giles, by 1826 the town was being called Marion after General Francis Marion and the name became official in 1847 when the town was incorporated. A weekly newspaper was established in 1846, and the Wilmington and Manchester Railroad arrived in 1854. The Great Pee Dee River prevented Sherman’s army from visiting Marion in March 1865. Marion was spared from destruction by General Sherman’s army on their way to Columbia in March of 1865 because the Great Pee Dee River prevented Sherman from making it to Marion.

Marion thrived in the decades following the war and Reconstruction. From 1870 to 1910 the population grew from 2,490 to 6,354. Agriculture remained important to the Marion economy, but the town also turned to industry. By the mid-1930s a lumber mill, a veneer and brick plant, an oil mill, along with an ironworks operated on the outskirts of town. Many buildings from this era survived into the twenty-first century, situated along streets lined with ancient oaks draped in Spanish moss. The Marion Academy (1886) became the Marion County Museum in 1981. Since 1983 the restored Town Hall and Opera House (1892) has been shared with the Chamber of Commerce. The Carnegie library building (1906) provided a permanent home for a public library organized in 1898, the first tax-supported library in the state. The Marion Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.

To learn more about the history and the people of Marion please read W. W. Sellers, A History of Marion County, South Carolina. Columbia, S.C.: R. L. Bryan, 1902.

 

The Barbados Connection

barbados-south-carolina

You’re probably asking yourself what the island of Barbados has to do with South Carolina. If you’ll continue to read, you will see that Barbados had a great deal to do with how South Carolina developed through the early years.

Barbados was settled by the English in 1627 and become an exceptionally wealthy, sugar controlled economy by the time of South Carolina’s settlement in 1670. Sir John Colleton, who probably led the effort to gain the Carolina charter for eight English noblemen. Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the first earl of Shaftesbury and the leading proprietor in the settling of South Carolina owned a plantation in Barbados was also a leader in helping gain a Carolina charter.

South Carolina’s beginnings are closely linked to the British West Indian colony of Barbados that it has been called a “Colony of a Colony.” South Carolina resemble the West Indies more than any other of the English mainland colonies.

Originally the Lords Proprietors wanted to inhabit their colony with settlers from Barbados and other colonies rather than from England. In 1663 a group of “Barbadian Explorers” attempted to establish a settlement at Cape Fear but four years the Barbadian settlement at Cape Fear was abandoned. In 1669 an expedition from England picked up some Barbadians and made its way to Carolina where they began to settle in the Charleston area. A great deal of the shipping from England during the early years came via Barbados, and a considerable number of Barbadians, both white and black, immigrated to the Carolina lowcountry.

Barbados has a total of 166 square miles of land, and by 1670 a majority of it was tied up in sugar “factories.” While the migration of freemen, indentured servants, and slaves from Barbados was huge only in South Carolina’s early years, the ties between the colonies remained strong. Provisions and barrel poles were among South Carolina’s earliest profitable enterprises and remained a substantial portion of exports even after large rice plantations enriched by slave labor came to dominate the colony after the 1690s

Proprietary South Carolina’s powerful Goose Creek political faction contained Barbadians. Their efforts to circumvent the proprietors’ prohibitions against selling Native Americans into slavery and dealing with pirates plagued the colony’s owners for years. Sir John Yeamans, who abandoned the earlier failed Barbadian settlement at Cape Fear and arranged the murder of his paramour’s husband so that he could marry her, while serving as South Carolina’s third governor from 1672 to 1674, he infuriated Lord Shaftesbury by making profits selling to Barbados provisions that were desperately needed in Carolina. Proprietary South Carolina had two other Barbadian governors: James Colleton, a brother of the man who then held the Colleton family share in the enterprise; and Robert Gibbes, who bribed his way into the governor’s office in 1710.

The Hanging of Little Abe

The Hanging of Little Abe

Little Abe

During the summer of 1849, Abraham “Big Abe” Rabon, Sr. and his sons, Abraham “Little Abe” Rabon, Jr. and Duke Rabon, farmed in the Popular section of Horry County, South Carolina which was located north of Cool Springs, about ten miles from Conway, SC. Another family of Rabon’s, (brother of Big Abe) lived nearby, the sons of both families which were cousins of Little Abe and Duke were in the habit of feeding their hogs on the lands of Big Abe. On September 3, 1849 they were told to stop by Big Abe or there would be trouble. In spite of the warning Little Abe’s cousin, Willis and his little brother George continued to feed their hogs on the Abe Rabon land. Later on the day of September 3 Willie and his brother were caught feeding their hogs on their land, Big Abe, Little Abe, and Duke went to stop the trespassing once and for all.

When Big Abe and his sons encountered Willis and George Rabon on “Big Abe’s” land, Willis & George were told by “Big Abe” to get off his land or he would release his dogs. Willis responded by saying he would kill the dogs, the dogs were released and Willis struck one of the dogs in the head. As the altercation escalated Willis Rabon was stabbed by “Little Abe” in the right side and died 15 minutes later. “Big Abe”, “Little Abe”, and Duke Rabon were arrested for Murder and were jailed. The trial was held in the 1850 Spring Term of criminal court. The Winyah Observer reported that all three were convicted of murder. They appealed their conviction, Duke was given a new trial and charges against Duke were eventually dropped. The Winyah Observer reported Little Abe was found guilty of murder and sentenced to be hanged but his father “Big Abe” was released. After “Big Abe” was released he went to the judge to ask that his son “Little Abe” be released until his hanging, “Big Abe” pleaded with the judge and gave the judge his word that he would have him there for his hanging (Judge’s name was not disclosed) if he would let him take his son home so help put the crop in. The Judge granted him this privilege and set the execution day for Jun 6, 1851

On the day of the hanging, “Big Abe” brought his son in on an ox and cart and an 11:00 that morning he turned him over to the Sheriff (W.H. “Hickory Bill” Johnston and the hangman). “Big Abe” also brought a pine coffin he had made for Little Abe to be buried in. Little Abe was hanged at 12:00 in the old muster field (corner 6th Avenue & Beaty St.) in Conway, SC. The hanging must have been the talk of the county, the Winyah Observer reported that about two thousand people witnessed the spectacle. Among the two thousand were about 500 women and young girls. After it was over, “Big Abe” placed his son in the coffin, and drove him back home in the rain.

Pleasant Union Missionary Baptist Church Cemetery

The next day he was buried in Pleasant Union Missionary Baptist Church Cemetery located in Bayboro, SC in Horry County.

 

South Carolina & Slavery

South Carolina and the African Slave Trade

Slavery was instituted in the “New World” by the Spanish, Portuguese, and Dutch, each dispatched African slaves to work in North America during the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The English embarked in slave trading in what was called “black ivory” through the middle 17th century, this slave trade was driven by the need for laborers in the sugar fields in the West Indian islands of Barbados, Bermuda, and Jamaica.

By the time Charles Towne (Charleston, SC ) was settled in 1670, Englishmen from the West Indies were accustomed with slavery and the vast profits they could obtain from the labor of others. For this reason slavery was deemed a necessity in order to have a successful and established crop on plantations in South Carolina. Like many other European nations, England created the Royal African Company to finance the slave trade. A string of forts and “slave factories” were established from the Cape Verde Islands to the Bight of Biafra (Western African coast between the Niger River and Cape Lopez). The slave trade would not been as effective had it not been for the “unholy alliance” between the English and other European nations, along with the African nations where these forts were positioned. The English slave traders would try to deceive the African kings, and the African king would do their best to acquire the greatest amount of goods in exchange for each slave for sale. For their shipments of slaves, the traders offered iron and copper bars, brass pans and kettles, cowrey shells (used as money in certain parts of Africa), guns, gun powder, cloth, and alcohol. The African kings would send ships loaded with slaves, anywhere from 200 to over 600 slaves, piling them like cord wood and allowing almost no breathing room for the slaves. With the overcrowding, the bad ventilation, and poor nutrition during the five weeks to three month voyage there were around 14%- 20% of the slaves died. This was thought to be a natural routine when doing business in slave trading. The slave trade is believed to have transported at least 10 million, and possibly over 20 million, Africans to the American.

The Carolina’s and their planters fostered an image of ” the “ideal slave– tall, healthy, male, between the ages of 14 and 18, “free of blemishes,” and as dark as possible. For these “ideal” slaves Carolina planters in the 18th century would pay between 100 and 200 sterling, today that would be somewhere between $11,500 and $24,000. Just about all of these slaves entered the Charleston port, they would be held temporarily on Sullivan’s Island where they were quarantined before being sold in Charleston’s slave markets. Most of these slaves were put to work in South Carolina’s rice fields.

 

The Barbados Connection

Barbados

Barbados

You’re probably asking yourself what the island of Barbados has to do with South Carolina. If you’ll continue to read, you will see that Barbados had a great deal to do with how South Carolina developed through the early years.

Barbados was settled by the English in 1627 and become an exceptionally wealthy, sugar controlled economy by the time of South Carolina’s settlement in 1670. Sir John Colleton, who probably led the effort to gain the Carolina charter for eight English noblemen. Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the first earl of Shaftesbury and the leading proprietor in the settling of South Carolina owned a plantation in Barbados was also a leader in helping gain a Carolina charter.

South Carolina’s beginnings are closely linked to the British West Indian colony of Barbados that it has been called a “Colony of a Colony.” South Carolina resemble the West Indies more than any other of the English mainland colonies.

Originally the Lords Proprietors wanted to inhabit their colony with settlers from Barbados and other colonies rather than from England. In 1663 a group of “Barbadian Explorers” attempted to establish a settlement at Cape Fear but four years the Barbadian settlement at Cape Fear was abandoned. In 1669 an expedition from England picked up some Barbadians and made its way to Carolina where they began to settle in the Charleston area. A great deal of the shipping from England during the early years came via Barbados, and a considerable number of Barbadians, both white and black, immigrated to the Carolina lowcountry.

Barbados has a total of 166 square miles of land, and by 1670 a majority of it was tied up in sugar “factories.” While the migration of freemen, indentured servants, and slaves from Barbados was huge only in South Carolina’s early years, the ties between the colonies remained strong. Provisions and barrel poles were among South Carolina’s earliest profitable enterprises and remained a substantial portion of exports even after large rice plantations enriched by slave labor came to dominate the colony after the 1690s

Proprietary South Carolina’s powerful Goose Creek political faction contained Barbadians. Their efforts to circumvent the proprietors’ prohibitions against selling Native Americans into slavery and dealing with pirates plagued the colony’s owners for years. Sir John Yeamans, who abandoned the earlier failed Barbadian settlement at Cape Fear and arranged the murder of his paramour’s husband so that he could marry her, while serving as South Carolina’s third governor from 1672 to 1674, he infuriated Lord Shaftesbury by making profits selling to Barbados provisions that were desperately needed in Carolina. Proprietary South Carolina had two other Barbadian governors: James Colleton, a brother of the man who then held the Colleton family share in the enterprise; and Robert Gibbes, who bribed his way into the governor’s office in 1710.